By Jean-Pierre Serre

Written through one of many significant individuals to the sphere, this publication is jam-packed with examples, routines, and open difficulties for additional edification in this interesting subject.

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**Example text**

6, T,W, L there exists t E: T Thus by 4 . 9. be as in 4 . 2 , (1 conta1n1ng such that { Ci - w) t / w Theorem 4 . 6 holds with and W , C IT E: as in C - a) C . um Wo- } ( 1 - c d Ttl C CO . = T/ (1 - a) T and Wa in place of T there exists side of the desired equat10n equals t E: T Co « 1 such that the left - a) T n C). hus 4 . 11 follows from : 4 . 12 . lSJ. a ( l - a) T n C are as above , � = • The character group X of T may be identifi ed with the As such s et of l1near functions on V wh1 ch are integral on L.

9 holds 1n this case . Row cons 1der the composlte natural map T � T/ (l - (T ) T . (1 - a)V q : V-+ V (1" ls 1ts orthogonal c omplement ( slnce t1n1te group q : V � � we may assume S1nc e W and a ls orthogonal) , 1s onto . T/ (l - a ) T l s ln the kernel and The kernel , 1 s Just the orthogonal proJect10n ot L on (1" generat e a the restrl ct10n Va n ( l - O") V Vrr ' + L) , hence 1s a latt1ce g enerated by the pro Ject10ns ot the basic trans lat10ns � (u u c 11r ), 4 . 10 . w c so that (c t .

1n the proof of 6. 2 . 9. 5 . lemma . --} Cl - 0") T ' n F. Assume f . (1 - o-)x w1th f £ F , x £ G' . Then fa x - x . If x . ulnu2 as in 6 . ) w1th n represent1ng w £ w' , then the uniqueness implies that w, ul and u2 are all f1xed by 0-, so that f . (1 - o- ) n. Proceed1ng as 1n ( 5) of the proof of 6. 2 , we get (1 - 0-) 1) £ (1 - w) t ' ( l - cr) T, whence 9 . 5 . Now we can prove 9. 1 (b ) . let T . nT' , a maximal torus of G. The elements of 1� are all quass . O n lift1ng them to G ' and comb1n1ng 9 .