Humain, trop humain by Friedrich Nietzsche

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Humain, trop humain, avec ses deux continuations, est le monument commémoratif d'une crise. Je l'ai intitulé : un livre pour les esprits libres, et presque chacune de ses words exprime une victoire ; en l'écrivant, je me suis débarrassé de tout ce qu'il y avait en moi d'étranger à ma vraie nature. Tout idéalisme m'est étranger. Le titre de mon livre veut dire ceci : là où vous voyez des choses idéales, moi je vois... des choses humaines, hélas ! trop humaines ! [...] On trouvera ce livre sage, posé, parfois dur et ironique. On dirait qu'un definite « intellectualisme » au goût aristocratique s'efforce constamment de dominer un courant de ardour qui gronde par en dessous.
Friedrich Nietzsche.

Commencé en 1876, et achevé au début de 1878, le leading livre de Humain, trop humain, qui comporte 638 aphorismes, a été pour l'essentiel dicté à Peter Gast, alors étudiant à Bâle. Il paraîtra le 30 mai 1878, pour saluer le centième anniversaire de los angeles mort de Voltaire, « l'un des plus grands libérateurs de l'esprit ». Le moment livre contient deux écrits distincts, evaluations et sentences mêlées et Le Voyageur et son ombre, qui seront quant à eux publiés l'un en 1879 et l'autre en 1880. Nietzsche s'est désormais libéré des impacts qui pesaient sur lui et son radicalisme trouve enfin son expression l. a. plus ferme. Il pourfend l. a. métaphysique traditionnelle, affronte le problème de l'éthique, développe sa critique du christianisme, renforce sa réflexion sur l'art et aborde des sujets aussi divers que le mariage, los angeles femme, les rapports humains, los angeles violence entre les hommes...

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The mind code is concerned only with the brain code, on whose level psychologically meaningful large-scale interactions make their appearance. The neural technicalities that underlie these, though interesting, are not important for us at this point. It is enough to know that the nerve impulse is a bioelectric disturbance, propagated along nerve fibers. The impulse is passed across synapses between neurons with the aid of neurotransmitter chemicals. We deal with neither these nor the cell assemblies and cortical columns into which neurons are organized.

Perspective 13 that the qualia character of experience should be regarded as constituting a universal biophysical idiom, that is, a neural language that has evolved for the transposition of the raw data into a user-friendly form. Far from being “mental” and exclusive to humans, the qualia idiom is an excellent qualitative shorthand for the simplification of the enormous complexity of the informational substrate of the brain. Indeed, if the brain (human or animal) would have to cope with the ocean of light waves, pressure waves and assorted raw data in which it is immersed, it would be overwhelmed and unable to make sense of it.

In chapter 10, “Between the Quantum and the Cosmos,” all the earlier insights are drawn together into a meaningful perspective. In this perspective the conscious mind is an indispensable component of cosmic unfolding, an important constituent for the explication of the universe on the micro- and macro-scale. If the physical nature of the mind system is granted and is understood as generating integrated insight and order, an unexpected ethical implication emerges. It relates to the promotion as against the retardation of the evolutionary process in which the conscious mind is embedded and of which it is the highest form of expression.

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