Dangerous trade : arms exports, human rights, and by Jennifer Erickson

By Jennifer Erickson

The United Nations's groundbreaking palms exchange Treaty (ATT), which went into influence in 2014, units legally binding criteria to control international fingers exports and displays the becoming matters towards the numerous function that small and significant traditional fingers play in perpetuating human rights violations, clash, and societal instability all over the world. many nations that after staunchly antagonistic shared export controls and their perceived danger to political and monetary autonomy are actually commencing to include quite a few agreements, corresponding to the ATT and the ecu Code of behavior.

Jennifer L. Erickson explores the explanations best arms-exporting democracies have set aside prior sovereignty, defense, and financial concerns in desire of humanitarian palms move controls, and he or she follows the early results of this about-face on export perform. She starts off with a short historical past of failed hands export keep watch over tasks after which tracks hands move developments over the years. Pinpointing the normative shifts within the Nineties that placed humanitarian palms keep watch over at the desk, she finds that those states dedicated to those regulations out of outrage for his or her overseas reputations. She additionally highlights how fingers alternate scandals threaten household reputations and therefore aid enhance compliance. utilizing statistical information and interviews carried out in France, Germany, Belgium, the uk, and the USA, Erickson demanding situations present IR theories of nation habit whereas offering perception into the position of acceptance as a social mechanism and the significance of presidency transparency and responsibility in producing compliance with new norms and rules.

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19 Social hierarchy does not replace the formal anarchy of the international system. 20 States, wishing to improve their reputations, may therefore seek to outperform their peers, particularly with respect to policies on issues close to their self-image (Tesser and Campbell 1980). In this case, some states may adopt “more responsible” policies than prescribed by community norms in order to set themselves apart from other states and enhance their legitimacy, esteem, and prestige. States’ concern for reputation thus illuminates a search for recognition of their equal status as “good” members of the international community and an effort to increase their standing in that community.

23 Finally, participation in international institutions can force states to publicly declare their positions, making their policy choices more observable to other actors and therefore subject to social appraisal. 24 In some cases, institutions may also make peer-review processes and other monitoring mechanisms available to examine state performance. Institutions introduce an opportunity for states to strategically choose policies to maintain, enhance, or repair their reputations. “Indeed,” Johnston notes, “there is no point engaging in [behavior] for reputational purposes unless [that behavior] is observable to others” (2008:7; see also O’Neill 2006).

Nevertheless, scandals are costly. They boost opposition strength and detract from the government’s domestic legitimacy. 41 Scandals may even set off questions about the exercise of government itself (Bowler and Karp 2004; Mancuso 1998). 42 In democracies, where leaders are subject to the scrutiny of the public and open press, the likelihood of scandals and their detrimental effects escalate in tandem (Markovits and Silverstein 1988; J. Thompson 2000; Williams 1998). As transparency of government practice improves, this dynamic becomes ever more salient.

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