By T. Flynn
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Two examples from this list of Nobel laureates are considered to illustrate the application of cryogenics to education and basic research. The ﬁrst example involves Donald Glaser who invented the bubble chamber. Glaser recognized the principal limitation of the Wilson cloud chamber, namely that the low-density particles in the cloud could not intercept enough high-energy particles that were speeding through it from the beams of powerful accelerators. Glaser’s ﬁrst bubble chamber operated near room temperature and used liquid diethylether.
System: Any portion of the material universe set apart by arbitrarily chosen but speciﬁc boundaries. It is essential that the system be clearly deﬁned in any thermodynamic analysis. Surroundings: All parts of the material universe not included in the system. The deﬁnitions of system and surroundings are coupled. The system is any quantity of matter or region mentally set apart from the rest of the universe, which then becomes the surroundings. The imaginary envelope that distinguishes the system from the surroundings is called the boundary of the system.
The total energy added is the change in internal energy plus the work (dU þ P dV). This quantity equals dH (at constant P), and dH ¼ CP dT (at constant P). So, dH ¼ CP dT ¼ dU þ P dV ¼ CV dT þ R dT ¼ ðCV þ RÞ dT Thus, CP ¼ CV þ R. This is true for any ideal gas (monatomic or not, because the work expression is always the same). For polyatomic molecules, the internal energy includes the translational kinetic energy, but the molecules also can ‘‘soak up’’ energy in the form of rotation and vibration about their bonds.