Creating Value with Proactive Environmental Strategies

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This approach holds merit, as it will result in a single, comparable number that is understandable to the general public and has already taken into account the likely environmental impact of the water use. Australian LCA methodology development The Australian methodology for agricultural LCA (Harris & Narayanaswamy 2009) provides another alternative to defining and measuring water use. The methodology identifies the following water usage elements in the inventory phase: • • • • • • • • collected rainwater (treated and untreated); collected surface water (treated and untreated); ground water (treated and untreated); saline and hyper saline water (low quality water for low quality uses); cooling water (treated and untreated) to and from the cooling towers; scheme water (for a centralised water treatment and sewerage works); grey water, potable water (human and animals), irrigation water, etc; and treated and untreated storm water run-on and run-off (if captured and used in processes/production activities).

The remaining portion of the metered groundwater was assumed to be used for cleaning and maintenance. 8 Source: PIGBAL (Casey et al. 2000)* Assumes 20% water wastage In addition to abstracted water, the piggery also inadvertently collects rainfall on open storages used for fresh water and effluent. This water enters the piggery water balance as fresh water or cleaning water. Water inputs are shown in Table 19, while outputs are shown in Table 20. 35 Table 19 – Blue water inputs (L) for the breeder unit to produce one weaner pig (6 weeks of age) in the northern supply chain Type Description L / Weaner Produced Evaporation - Upstream Reticulated supply Groundwater Groundwater Groundwater Surface Rainfall Clean surface water storage Drinking Cleaning Maintenance/ office Cooling water Effluent pond catchment Total 113 0 460 255 7 232 222 1291 Outputs The piggery produces a range of outputs and emissions to the environment from the use of resources (energy, water) and from the pigs (enteric methane, undigested feed, manure components).

Critical Review Considering the goal of the LCA is to present information to the public, the results must be reviewed by an independent expert to meet the ISO Standard 14040 (2006a). The critical review has been carried out throughout the LCA modelling process by an external expert (Mr Tim Grant – Life Cycle Strategies). Comments and recommendations from the external review have been incorporated into this final report. LCA Modelling The LCA was modelled using two programs, i) PIGBAL was used to model on-farm processes and develop the piggery mass balance (described in Appendix 1), and ii) Simapro™ was used to model the whole supply chain LCA.

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