By Sherry Rochester
This ebook is a examine of discourse-the stream of talk-of schizophrenic audio system. Our aim is to appreciate the approaches which account for the normal move of speak that occurs for all time among audio system and lis teners. How do conversations occur? what's wanted through a listener to stick to a speaker's phrases and reply safely to them? How a lot can a speaker take with no consideration and what sort of needs to be acknowledged explicitly for the listener to stick to the speaker's meanings comfortably and simply? every time we ask those questions, we appear to have to return to a few position ahead of the "ordinary" grownup dialog. This time, now we have attempted reversing the questions and asking: What occurs while conversa tion fails? caused partly by means of an early paper via Robin Lakoff to the Chi cago Linguistics Society and via Herb Clark's stories of listener approaches, we puzzled what a speaker has to do to make the listener eventually cease making allowances and prevent attempting to alter the conversational agreement to cooperate. This inquiry led us to the schizophrenic speaker. while a listener makes a decision that the speaker's speak is "crazy," she or he is giving up at the basic type of dialog and asserting, in impression, this speak is ex traordinary and whatever is inaccurate. We notion that, if lets specify what makes a talk fail, we would study what needs to be current for a talk to succeed.
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Extra info for Crazy Talk: A Study of the Discourse of Schizophrenic Speakers
As McGhie (1970) observed later, the subjective reports suggested thatthe patient's difficulties in understanding speech arose "not from an inability to perceive the individual words comprising a connected discourse, but from an inability to perceive the words in meaningful relationship to each other as part of an organized pattern" (p. 12). The problem was to find a means of demonstrating that comprehension failures were due to an inability to organize language or to an inability to use the organization that was already part of language.
First, it is discouraging to find no serious account taken of the similar but more developed analyses published by Maher and his colleagues some ten years earlier. Several important points made in the earlier study seem to be lost to the later workers: namely, the problems in defining and selecting "schizophrenic" or "thought disordered" speech; the need to describe results for individual subjects as well as for groups; and the significance of syntactic considerations as well as themes in assessing texts.
The Criticisms. There have been many direct and indirect criticisms of these early studies. Pavy (1968) has pointed out that all the studies suffer from a major confounding: orders of approximation to English were always presented from random words to sentences so that subjects would be most fatigued and stressed at higher orders of approximation. This was likely to operate selectively against schizophrenic subjects. , Coleman, 1963; Hormann, 1971, Ch. , Miller, 1965) criticism. " It is much too narrow to account for how speakers produce and listeners understand language.