By Hossein Askari
Explaining how the cost of aggression is low sufficient that governments don't stay away from conflicts, this publication makes use of examples drawn from fresh conflicts within the Persian Gulf to ascertain many dimensions of prices incurred via war and proposes a personal area method to warfare's most economical.
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Extra resources for Conflicts and Wars: Their Fallout and Prevention
The number of armed conflicts increased since World War II, and after peaking in the early 1990s, the trend has been downward. The figure also shows the dyadic trends. In interstate conflicts, the warring parties are governments of states, whereas in intrastate conflicts, one side is the government and the other is a rebel group. A conflict can involve a number of dyads, as the government may be fighting many rebel groups over time. Thus, dyadic information can reveal more about conflicts; for example, the complexities facing efforts at conflict resolution.
The civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo (1996–2001) is the cause of the last peak. If we were to include non-state, namely, ethnic or sectarian, violence in the statistics, we would see an additional peak in 1994 with the Rwandan genocide and, potentially, in the more recent years (Iraq and Afghanistan). 7 percent of global GDP in 2009. There was a global increase in military expenditures in 2009 over 2008, except in the Middle East. The 2008 global financial and economic crisis did not impact military spending, because many countries increased public spending to provide economic stimulus for their ailing economies, postponing deficit reduction during the crisis.
Consequently, a regional system emerged whereby countries became regional allies to benefit from special regional resources, unique geographical positioning, or collective protective capacity (Glaser). The emergence of new identities, built around new free countries, has promoted regionalization. Regional powers tend to regulate their interests independently, prompting or forcing other countries in the region to group around them or to ally with them. These new regional powers (countries such as India, Turkey, and Nigeria) do not compete for global hegemony, but they are of special interest to superpowers competing for supremacy.