Clinical Strategies in the Management of Diabetic by Francesco Bandello, Marco Attilio Zarbin, Rosangela

By Francesco Bandello, Marco Attilio Zarbin, Rosangela Lattanzio, Ilaria Zucchiatti

With the appearance of potent remedies for diabetic retinopathy (DR), a brand new period within the administration of DR has been unfolded. Amid the deluge of authorized remedies and promising new options, in spite of the fact that, clinicians may possibly locate it tricky to decide on the precise perform in each one person case. the aim of this easy-to-use and richly illustrated guide is to aid ophthalmologists in making judgements within the complete administration of DR in line with the easiest on hand proof. sensible and whole suggestions are supplied to steer clinicians in analysis, decision-making, and remedy. The guide comprises useful algorithms and case histories on the subject of all levels of DR that basically clarify the development of the affliction and may aid the clinician to settle on the simplest healing strategy. it is going to be a fantastic source for ophthalmologists aiming to supply optimum medical administration for this sight-threatening disease.

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Extra info for Clinical Strategies in the Management of Diabetic Retinopathy: A step-by-step Guide for Ophthalmologists

Example text

Diabetol Metab Syndr 1:13 35. Mima A, Qi W, Hiraoka-Yamomoto J et al (2012) Retinal not systemic oxidative and inflammatory stress correlated with VEGF expression in rodent models of insulin resistance and diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:8424–8432 36. Rani PK, Raman R, Chandrakantan A, Pal SS, Perumal GM, Sharma T (2009) Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in self-reported rural population with diabetes. J Postgrad Med 55: 92–96 37. Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Neil HA, Matthews DR (2008) Long-term follow-up after tight control of blood pressure in type 2 diabetes.

References 1. Zhang X, Saaddine JB, Chou CF et al (2010) Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the United States, 2005–2008. JAMA 304:649–656 2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in United States [article online]. pdf. Accessed 1 May 2013 3. Yau JW, Rogers SL, Kawasaki R et al (2012) Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care 35:556–564 4. Fong DS, Aiello L, Gardner TW et al (2003) Diabetic retinopathy.

The presence of only microaneurysms is generally asymptomatic and could be detected variably in the early stages of the DR, according the property of the blood glucose control. Microaneurysms are clearly identified on dilated fundus examination; nevertheless, with fluorescein angiography (FA), a wider number could be detected (Fig. 2). In the different levels of severity of NPDR, intraretinal hemorrhages could be noticed, produced by the rupture of the microaneurysms (intraretinal punctate hemorrhages), IRMAs, and leaking capillaries.

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