By Pamela M. Lee
Within the Nineteen Sixties paintings fell out of time; either artists and critics misplaced their temporal bearings in keeping with what E. M. Cioran known as “not being entitled to time.” This anxiousness and uneasiness approximately time, which Pamela Lee calls “chronophobia,” minimize throughout hobbies, media, and genres, and was once figured in works starting from kinetic sculptures to Andy Warhol motion pictures. regardless of its pervasiveness, the topic of time and Nineteen Sixties artwork has long gone mostly unexamined in historic debts of the interval. Chronophobia is the 1st serious try and outline this obsession and research it on the subject of paintings and technology.
Lee discusses the chronophobia of paintings relative to the emergence of the knowledge Age in postwar tradition. The accompanying quick technological differences, together with the arrival of pcs and automation techniques, produced for lots of an acute feel of old unknowing; the doubtless sped up speed of existence started to outstrip any makes an attempt to make experience of the current. Lee sees the angle of Nineteen Sixties paintings to time as a historic prelude to our present fixation on time and velocity inside electronic tradition. Reflecting upon the Sixties cultural nervousness approximately temporality, she argues, is helping us historicize our present relation to expertise and time.
After an introductory framing of phrases, Lee discusses such themes as “presentness” with recognize to the curiosity in platforms idea in Sixties paintings; kinetic sculpture and new types of international media; the temporality of the physique and the spatialization of the visible snapshot within the work of Bridget Riley and the functionality artwork of Carolee Schneemann; Robert Smithson’s curiosity in seriality and futurity, thought of in mild of his analyzing of George Kubler’s vital paintings the form of Time: feedback at the background of items and Norbert Wiener’s dialogue of cybernetics; and the unending belaboring of the current in sixties paintings, as obvious in Warhol’s Empire and the paintings of On Kawara.
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Extra info for Chronophobia: On Time in the Art of the 1960s
For three days he screened his ﬁlm The Secret Life of Hernando Cortez during the company’s lunch hour. With Warhol “Superstar” Ultraviolet and poet Taylor Mead romping about in trees in various states of undress, the movie seemed to conﬁrm for RAND’s employees the worst clichés about artists in general. 4). The mimeographed sheet reads: “I’m searching for ANSWERS. Not questions! ” The answers spoke volumes to the divide between Chamberlain’s conceptual leanings and RAND’s technological methods.
This is not to say that Tuchman was attempting to reinvent the wheel or stage a show without relevance to the larger context or sixties art making. His introduction to the Art and Technology catalog is plainspoken about the local culture that inspired him and the everpressing sense that the project was historically necessary. “In 1966,” he wrote several years later, when Art and Technology was ﬁrst conceived, I had been living in Southern California for two years. A newcomer to this region is particularly sensitive to the futuristic character of Los Angeles, especially as it is manifested in advanced technology.
The counterculture, he argued, emerged as a reaction to the technocracy of Eisenhower’s military-industrial complex, and its very ignorance of history and radical politics was, in some respects, its strength. “Ironically, it is the American young,” Roszak began, with their underdeveloped radical background . . who seem to have grasped most clearly the fact that, while such immediate emergencies as the Vietnam war, racial injustice, and hard core poverty demand an ideal INTRODUCTION EROS AND TECHNICS AND CIVILIZATION of old-style politiking, the paramount struggle of our day is against a far more formidable, because far less obvious opponent, to which I will give the name “technocracy”—a social form more highly developed in America than in any other society.