Causation and Causal Theories by French P.A., Uehling, T.E., Jr., Wettstein H.K.

By French P.A., Uehling, T.E., Jr., Wettstein H.K.

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Moreover, after its return to Meriden, it is questionable whether it is any longer that same landmark. ’ These cases, (␣) (␤) (␥) seem to qualify, if they qualify at all, as cases of type (), though for one or two of them type-() analyses might also be suggested. 15 Mind,  (Oct. ). The absoluteness of sameness  .                         (  ) (␦) An argument in Geach’s Reference and Generality, p. , might prompt the following suggestion. Whatever is a river is water.

This simply abbreviates ‘a is the same donkey as b’, where that is to be understood as having whatever meaning the language imparts to these English words. Again, at the outset of the inquiry in Chapter One, the question is put whether x can be the same f as y without being the same g as y. But there is no policy here to diminish dependence on informal English. To make a question in English out of this schema, for instance, replace the letters ‘ x ’ and ‘ y ’ by names of things and the thing-kind letters ‘f ’ and ‘g’ by predicates denominating 16 Cf.

18 For what follows, see Wiggins (), pp. –. For similar derivations see Perry (), p. ; Stevenson (), p. . Stevenson worked out a formalized framework in which this and other claims could be formally evaluated in Stevenson (). The absoluteness of sameness  Hence, by modus ponens, ΂a ϭg b΃. Hence we arrive at not R. So, if we suppose that the first conjunct of R holds true, then we obtain the denial of the remainder of R. It follows that R is not true. The questions that now arise are whether Leibniz’s Law is true (as this derivation presumes) and, if so, whether it is as true for ‘is the same f as’ as it is for ‘ϭ’.

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