Cartographic encounters : indigenous peoples and the by John Rennie Short

By John Rennie Short

During this reinterpretation of U.S. background, the writer argues that, previously, writing approximately and well known knowing of the exploration and mapping of the recent global has principally neglected the pivotal function performed via indigenous humans. creation: construction myths and cartographic encounters ; Amerindian mappings -- Colonial cartographies: Encounters in a settled land ; Landings in an odd land -- Imperial cartographies: Surveying the West : Lewis and Clark and others ; excursion into the 'desert' ; Fremont and Tah-Kai-Buhl ; 'Warren's map' ; final the frontier within the west -- Conclusions: Cartographic encounters in Australia ; Journey's finish

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Smith had to negotiate from a position of weakness against powerful forces that could, and sometimes did, conspire to wipe out the colonists. His earliest experiences are recorded in A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of Note as Hath Hapned in Virginia. This text was originally a long letter he wrote about the first winter in Jamestown. It was rushed into print in 1608, without Smith’s knowledge, containing errors and some crude editing. However, it 48 retains the immediacy of a letter and provides a more journalistic account of the experiences, whereas his later writing seems more angled for posterity than for accuracy.

9 Yong receives information on the basic physical geography as well as a lesson in local political history and current geopolitics. A couple of days later Yong comes across another tribe: I enquired of this king how farre this River ranne up into the Countrey, and whither it werr navigable or no, he told me it ranne a great way up, and that I might gow with my shippe, till I came to a certaine place, where the rockes ranne cleane across the River [now Trenton, New Jersey] . . 10 Through these cartographic encounters, the English explorers received vital information while indigenous groups obtained trade goods and geopolitical information (the explorers told them of other regions and tribes), and the possibility of alliances with the English against their enemies.

11 It is interesting to note, as this excerpt reveals, that the cartographic encounters were made easier by the writing tools carried by the Europeans. The pens and paper provided an important method of communication. The French traded with the locals for food and the information necessary to negotiate the complex portage systems that linked river systems. In some cases they followed the Native Americans’ lead. In 1679, at a place close to present-day South Bend, Indiana, Hennepin notes, We rejoined our party the next day at the portage where Father Gabriel had made several crosses on the trees, that we might recognize it.

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