Caesar against liberty? : perspectives on his autocracy by Francis Cairns, E. Fantham

By Francis Cairns, E. Fantham

d the heritage of the realm via environment in teach the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. This themed quantity of PLLS handles the real and arguable challenge of Caesar's personal attitudes to 'liberty' and 'autocracy'. It comprises revised, annotated and on occasion improved models of papers brought on the 7th Annual Langford convention at Florida nation college, in addition to one supplementary contribution and English translations of 2 papers initially released in Italian. The individuals represent a distinctive overseas staff of historic historians.

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As the title of the latter work indicates, Meier stresses the extent to which even Caesar was at the mercv of circumstance: Caesar, the brilliant outsider, was facing a "Crisis without alternative" and was limited in his power as dictator — as Cicero's early letter to Paetus (Fam. 17 quoted above) implies. And Meier approached his Caesar (Berlin 1982, Munich 1993, tr. New York 1995) by way of his earlier monograph (Res Publica Amissa) and many articles, which put a fair share of the responsibility for the fall of the republic on the so-called optimales, Caesar's enemies.

Well before he became tutor to an adolescent emperor and composed De dementia Seneca addressed the quality; not only as the special virtue of Claudius to which he as an exile hoped to appeal, but also of Caesar himself. As for Caesar, Griffin illustrates how Seneca praised his clemency towards the Pompeians in De Ira, but disqualifies it in De Beneficiis as a counterargument to Brutus's 16 ELAINE FANTHAM justification of killing the man who had spared his life. While Caesar deserved praise for sparing his opponents, he must be condemned for abusing the power he had been given to subdue Rome's Gallic and German enemies in order to obtain absolute power over Rome (Ben.

But the use of Roman concepts to describe the Gauls was bound to suggest to a Roman reader certain analogies and so to produce in many cases a stock reaction. It is thus worth examining some of the instances in which Caesar may have tried 13 14 13 14 Cf. Sherwin-White (1967) 28. For potentia, gratia and dignitas, cf. , 202ff, 388ff. 27 CAESAR AND GAUL to condition in this way the response of his audience to the characters he was describing. Orgetorix is the first figure whose treatment is deserving of mention.

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