By Andreas Marneros, Jules Angst
100 years in the past - in 1899 - Emil Kraepelin, Professor of Psychiatry in Heidelberg and later in Munich - created, in vitally important items of labor, the concept that of "manisch-depressives Irresein" ("manic-depressive insanity"). the 1st was once entitled Die klinische Stellung der Melancholie(The medical place of Melancholia), and the second one ebook used to be the 6th variation of his textbook. within the comparable 12 months Kraepelin's scholar and colleague, Wilhelm Weygandt, released his e-book Uber die Mischzustande des Manisch- Depressiven Irreseins (On the combined States of Manic-Depressive Insanity). A century after Kraepelin's construction of "manic-depressive insanity", we have a good time. is that this judicious? We think it's firmly tested that the "folie circulaire" of Jean-Pierre Falret or the "folie a double forme" of Jules Baillarger differs from recurrent melancholy, that's additionally varied from Kraepelin's "manic-depressive insanity". but the reply to the query of xvi Preface if it is applicable to have a good time is apparent: sure. This not just as the paintings of Emil Kraepelin is key within the precise feel of the observe. There might be doubtless that Emil Kraepelin is crucial founding father of glossy psychiatry. only one of the numerous purposes for this opinion is his huge, immense contribution to the definition, description and prognosis of affective problems.
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Extra info for Bipolar Disorders. 100 Years after Manic-Depressive Insanity
As is well known, Kraepelin dichotomized the so-called endogenous psychoses into two groups, namely "dementia praecox" (with a poor outcome) and the "manic-depressive insanity" (with a favourable outcome). But he already knew that not all cases of endogenous mental disorders can readily be classified into the two categories. Some cases of mixed states, delirious mania and other mental disorders described by Kraepelin (1893, 1920) could be allocated to either category or to neither of them. In a critical appraisal of his own taxonomy, Kraepelin wrote in his important paper of 1920 ("Die Erscheinungsformen des Irreseins") ("The phenomenological forms of insanity"), that mental disorders can have ele- Bipolar disorders: roots and evolution 15 ments of both groups of mental disorders, namely "dementia praecox" and "manic-depressive insanity" and they can also have a different course and a different prognosis than "dementia praecox".
He also described manic states that arise from melancholic ones. During the development of melancholia into mania a conglomerate of "manic and depressive symptoms can be observed" (Griesinger 1845, pp. 212–214). From a practical point of view it can be said that almost all pre-Kraepelian authors described mixed states, as can be seen in tables from the most prominent old diagnostic classifications (presented by Karl Kahlbaum in his book of 1863) (Marneros 2000b). In 1852, Pohl, in Prague, in a large monograph on melancholia, described mixed states occurring during the transition from melancholia to mania (pp.
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