By S. Morse
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Extra info for Bioterrorism
2000), Fluorescence Emission Derived from Dipicolinate Acid, its Sodium, and its Calcium Salts, Appl. , 54, p. 445. , (2002), Enhanced spore detection using dipicolinate extraction techniques, Anal. Chim. , 455, p. 167. , (2002), Bacillus subtilis sporulation and stationary phase gene expression, Cell. Mol. , 59, p. 392. , (2003), Identification of a New Gene Essential for Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores with Ca2+-Dipicolinate, J. , 185, p. 2315. , (1997), Bacterial spore detection and determination by use of terbium dipicolinate photoluminescence, Anal.
Cereus spores contained 10 wt % DPA and each spore has a mass of 10-11g, this is equivalent to 10 spores/cm2 for the experiment presented here. It could also be argued that the same number of spores could be spread over a 10 cm2 region and the same amount of digesting agent would produce an equivalent SER signal. Together these arguments suggest that the present method is capable of measuring the goal of 10 Detection of Bacillus Spores by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy 37 spore/cm2 and that SER-active capillaries could be used to measure surfaces and map distribution of anthrax endospores in mail distribution facilities or other environments should another verified attack occur.
Cereus). In several cases, protein and CaDPA vibrational modes occur at or close to the same frequency, such as the 821 and 1446 cm-1 peaks. Next, the amount of CaDPA available in a spore that could be measured as DPA was considered. Although it is often stated that Bacillus ssp. , 2004), this value has been reported as low as 1% (Halverson, 1961). Since this amount will be used to calculate the number of spores measured, it is important to have as accurate a number as possible. For this reason, the Raman spectra of Bacillus subtilis, B.