By Dr C. A. Smith, Dr E. J. Wood (auth.)
This short and obtainable advent to the biosynthesis of molecules of organic value is geared in the direction of assisting non-specialist scholars comprehend and practice biochemical rules during the liberal addition of examples, purposes, routines and questions through the textual content.
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Extra info for Biosynthesis: Molecular and Cell Biochemistry
This chapter is concerned with the fixation of CO2 and its transformation into organic compounds. One of the products of photosynthesis is glucose, empirical formula C6 H 12 0 6 . It is well established that such a molecule or its precursors are not produced by joining together six carbon atoms from CO 2 , Rather, there is a complicated sequence of reactions, commencing with one CO 2 molecule carboxylating an acceptor, Cs, molecule, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (Fig. 2a). The details of the enzyme-catalysed reaction by which this carboxylation occurs are now well understood.
18). The new molecule is not a copy of the old one but its complement: a photographic negative is a useful analogy. In fact, when DNA is duplicated by a process of semiconservative replication, two new double helixes of DNA are produced which are identical to the parent double helix (Fig. 19). When proteins are produced, the information is not duplicated but translated. The information is taken from the repository and the instructions acted upon to produce a sequence of amino acids to make a particular protein.
In many temperate plant C3 species, so-called because the first CO 2 fixation product is 3-phosphoglycerate, photorespiration can be responsible for the degradation of 20% or more of the fixed CO 2, Since photorespiration increases at a greater rate with temperature than does CO2 fixation, it might be expected to provide a severe metabolic limitation for subtropical and tropical plant species. However, an alternative strategy for CO 2 fixation has evolved in these plants which minimizes photorespiration.