Biology for Engineers by Arthur T. Johnson

By Arthur T. Johnson

I. INTRODUCTIONScience and EngineeringScientific MethodMathematical Modeling organic Engineering expectancies for organic Engineers approximately PredictionsAbout This BookQuestionsII. rules FROM THE SCIENCESPrinciples of Physics attempt and circulate Variables BalancesStates of MatterEquivalence of labor and effort unfastened EnergyDisorder and Entropy warmth TransferMovement of fabrics Fluid Mechanics good Mechanics Read more...


A source that elaborates on suggestions and know-how with an emphasis at the usage of dwelling issues. instead of treating biology as a technology requiring memorization of connections and Read more...

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They are, however, conceptually satisfying and relatively easy to defend. Empirical models are mathematical descriptions of observations, and they often involve a good deal of fitting curves to data. A large number of mathematical models of biological systems are empirical because the subject matter is often very complex and far removed from the simple application of basic principles. To construct an empirical model, one would begin with a set of numerical observations and attempt to fit the data with a mathematical expression that preserved the essence of the variation of the data without reproducing the unessential (or noise) aspects of data variation.

No one reading this book will become an expert in biology. Additional texts and courses will be necessary for that. And, even the experts must read constantly in order to stay abreast of the many new developments that are happening these days. This book is intended to give perspective—to give an appreciation for the entire interface between technology and the life sciences. Biological systems are not exempt from the laws of physics, chemistry, and other sciences. Therefore, the next section deals with scientific principles relevant to biology.

Mechanical work is extremely important for BU, and this work is used to define the meaning of energy. 8. 1 The biological unit (BU) is affected by interactions with its physical, chemical, and biological environment. Likewise, environmental elements are affected by the BU. Self-adjustment is also a possibility. The transfer of something from one place to another depends directly on the surface area and is inversely proportional to the distance between the two places. No matter whether the “something” is heat, mass, electrical current, or something else, BU must deal with the constraints imposed by geometry.

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