Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict by Ara Norenzayan

By Ara Norenzayan

How did human societies scale up from tight-knit teams of hunter-gatherers to the big, nameless, cooperative societies of today--even notwithstanding anonymity is the enemy of cooperation? How did geared up religions with "Big Gods"--the nice monotheistic and polytheistic faiths--spread to colonize so much minds on the planet? In Big Gods, Ara Norenzayan makes the fantastic argument that those primary puzzles concerning the origins of civilization resolution each one other.

Sincere religion in watchful large Gods unleashed remarkable cooperation inside of ever-expanding teams, but even as it brought a brand new resource of capability clash among competing teams. And in a few components of the area, societies with atheist majorities--some of the main cooperative and wealthy within the world--have climbed religion's ladder, after which kicked it away.

Big Gods" solutions basic questions on the origins and unfold of worldwide religions and is helping us comprehend the increase of cooperative societies with no trust in gods.

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Cf. Skinner, Genesis, 471; P. Volz and W. Rudolph, Der Elohist als Erzähler: Ein Irrweg der Pentateuchkritik ? 1933, 169; lately, L. Ruppert, Die Josephserzählung der Genesis, 1965, 70 and 86 f. Verse 52 is modified because of the close relationship with the preceding verse. The Qatal verb functions as a historical tense just as does the normally. Cf. von Rad, Genesis, 373. ) and a key word which is assonant with the name given to the child96. The substance of the word play varies, however. 52); once it is the direct result of divine action (29 32); once a verb descriptive of the future role of the child (5 29).

3· 36 Etymological Etiologies (servants deliver a message)108; speech (the message); naming (Form I without a y element). The characteristics of the simplest etymological etiological report are now evident. The setting (v. 32a through ΠΒΠ) merely provides a situation — like the birth report — in which the name may arise. A quoted speech substitutes for a y element and directly motivates the name. The word play which makes this causal relationship clear, however, is not one of assonance. Instead, the name taken as a substantive expresses an appropriate and nearly equivalent response to the substance of the servants' message.

Gen 6 28 has -ΙΏΝ1?. Gen 29 sa preserves a purely causal M. " In the Ugaritic texts, the motifs of birth and naming are joined together. Cf. text 76:1:28; less clear, 6:30ff. Older Semitic names in fact seem to reflect the immediacy of the birth situation. Cf. J . Stamm, Die akkadische Namengebung, 1939, prgr. 3, pp. 8ff. All this suggests that the report of a birth provides a natural and familiar context for an explanation of a person's name. M Long 3 34 Etymological Etiologies context which lends significance to the name given is encompassed entirely by the limits of Form I.

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