By S. Amsterdamski
Polish philosophy of technological know-how has been the beneficiary of 3 robust artistic streams of medical and philosophical notion. First and fore so much was once the Lwow-Warsaw university of Polish analytical philosophy based by way of Twardowski and persisted of their numerous methods through Les niewski, Lukasiewicz, and Tarski, the nice mathematical and logical philosophers, by means of Kotarbinski, essentially the most amazing instructor, public determine, and culturally influential thinker of the inter-war and post-war interval, and via Ajdukiewicz, the linguistic thinker who was once intellectually sympathetic with the anti-irrationalist (as he may say), logistic and meta-theoretical inquiries of the Vienna Circle. moment was once autonomous and energetic Polish Marxism, with its advantageous improvement of social study lower than Krzywicki, a social anthropologist and more youthful modern of Engels, after which after the warfare the economist Lange, the philosophers Schaff, Kolakowski, Baczko, and so on. ultimately there was a variety of philosophical, clinical and humanistic pupil send which lends its quite a few characteristics to the certainty of either the common sense of technology and the ancient state of affairs of the sciences: we point out basically that groovy and humane physicist Infeld, the phenomenologist with deep epistemological curiosity Ingarden, the historian of medical principles Zawirski, the historian of philosophy and aesthetics Tatarkiewicz, and the mathematical logicians comparable to Mostowski and Szaniawski.
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Additional resources for Between Experience and Metaphysics: Philosophical Problems of the Evolution of Science
By what right do we use the name science for such dissimilar systems of belief as, for example, Greek cosmology and the theory of relativity, the theory of preformation and contemporary molecular biology, the atomistic theory of Democritus and the contemporary theory of the structure of matter, in other words, for all that at different periods was considered as science? It is not hard to state that science continually evolves, that its internal structure, methods of research, the relationships to technology, degree of mathematisation, and social role all change from period to period.
This is why they change very seldom, why they are the most stable components of the system. It is why it may seem that the system as a whole evolves and works permanently on the grounds of the same rules, and that it is possible to provide a definition of science or to solve the problem of demarcation by specifying the methodological rules which are always to be satisfied by any scientific statement. In order to realize how deeply logical and methodological rules are involved in changes of the field, it would be enough to remind the reader of the discussions concerning the necessity of a new logic as a result of the paradoxes of quantum physics, concerning probabilistic inferences, or of the polemics concerning operationalism, instrumentalism and realism with all their impact upon the discussion of the concept of truth.
IV At first glance it may appear that the solution of the problem of demarcation should not present any serious difficulties. It would suffice, it might seem, to state which common features are to be found in scientific 30 CHAPTER II statements as opposed to non-scientific ones. A moment of reflection, however, should suffice to let us understand that such a road leads nowhere. For in order to indicate what differentiates scientific statements from any other, we must first delimit them, and to do so we must, of course, use some criterion of demarcation, which is precisely what we are looking for.