By J. Canfield
This e-book is a philosophical exam of the levels in our trip from hominid to human. facing the character and starting place of language, self-consciousness, and the non secular excellent of a go back to Eden, it has a philosophical anthropology process. It presents an account of our position in nature in step with either empiricism and mysticism.
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Additional info for Becoming Human: The Development of Language, Self, and Self-Consciousness
Returning to “language-game,” consider someone being told what the term means by being presented with a range of examples. ” What is required is that the term have a use, and that the learner master the use. One must respond in the appropriate way to the examples one is presented with. The person must go on in a certain way, but he or she need not have a mastery of some corresponding higher level term. Of course, here we are dealing with philosophy and not color words, so it is not obvious what going on in the right way would look like.
But then what, here, is an “interaction” and what is it to “play a role”? Either we turn to other abstract notions themselves in need of explication or we explain “interaction” and “role” by giving examples. In general, it is a central, defining point of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy that explication of meaning must precede by examining instances. It might be objected that example-based explanations cannot work unless they presuppose some general idea of what it is one is attempting to exemplify.
Buying Apples Locating a practice of merely naming within different tribal or cultural contexts emphasizes its distance from full-fledged language-use. Another way of underscoring that distance is to consider a richer practice of use than that of the slab/beam people. Wittgenstein imagines such a use: I send someone shopping. I give him a slip marked ‘five red apples’. —It is in this and similar ways that one operates with words (PI, §1). This use of words is similar to that of the slab/beam case in that both function as requests.