Architectural Styles: A Visual Guide by Owen Hopkins

By Owen Hopkins

Have you questioned what the adaptation is among Gothic and Gothic Revival, or how one can distinguish among Baroque and Neoclassical? This consultant makes large use of pictures to spot and clarify the attribute good points of approximately three hundred constructions. the result's a transparent and easy-to-navigate consultant to deciding upon the main varieties of western structure from the classical age to the current day.

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Architectural Styles: A Visual Guide

Have you questioned what the variation is among Gothic and Gothic Revival, or tips on how to distinguish among Baroque and Neoclassical? This advisor makes large use of photos to spot and clarify the attribute beneficial properties of approximately three hundred constructions. the result's a transparent and easy-to-navigate advisor to deciding on the main types of western structure from the classical age to the current day.

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The head of state was the Doge, who was elected for life (though sometimes forced to resign if he was unsuccessful or unpopular). Various councils acted as a check on the Doge’s power, and some had the power of veto over his actions. Although complex and often fractious, the Venetian form of government ensured that all citizens – from aristocracy to merchants and the ordinary people – had a voice and a stake in Venice’s wellbeing. Shaped by these political, commer– cial and geographical particularities, Venetian Gothic was sui generis, unlike all other forms of Gothic architecture, even Italian Gothic, which resisted the emphasis on verticality of its northern counterparts and remained far plainer 40 (perhaps except for Milan’s great cathedral).

Below the motte was the bailey, a larger enclosed area fortified by a surrounding stake fence or palisade (later a stone wall) above a ditch. The bailey contained stables, barracks, workshops kitchens and other service buildings required for the castle to sustain itself. From the end of the twelfth century the Crusades fundamentally altered 48 the course of castle design. Inspired by Saracen examples, European castles – Château Gaillard, France, begun in 1196 by Richard I, King of England (r. 1189–99) and Duke of Aquitaine, was arguably the first – began to adopt series of concentric curtain walls, reducing the reliance on the keep for defence, which eventually disappeared from castle design.

The concentric castle type evolved features such as round towers, which were less vulnerable to attack. However, the advent of gunpowder, and especially of heavy cannon in the mid fifteenth century, marked the end of the castle as fort-residence. A new generation of permanent forts better able to withstand cannon fire became the primary means of defence, yet castles have retained their symbolic significance up to the present day. Gothic and Medieval > Castle Battlements Castles were equipped with various forms of battlement.

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