Anorectal and Colon Diseases: Textbook and Color Atlas of by Dr. med. Ernst Stein (auth.)

By Dr. med. Ernst Stein (auth.)

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The muscular closure of the rectum and anus is achieved through two separate mechanisms. The sphincter muscles contract together and occlude the canal, both in a circular and longitudinal fashion. In addition, the muscular slings of the superficial and deep components of the external anal sphincter alter the angle of anorectal flexure, but the role of this mechanism in continence is limited. In addition, the longitudinal muscles of the rectal ampulla are continuous, as compared to the sigmoid colon where they are condensed into three strips the taenia libera, mesocolica, and omentalis.

Chemical disinfectants function in a variety of ways. Alcohols, phenols, and aldehydes tend to cause irreversible protein denaturation. Quaternary ammonium compounds damage cell walls and cell membranes, while heavy metals tend to block enzymes, a process which is to some extent reversible. The use of chemical disinfection once again requires detailed knowledge, so that the correct agent is chosen, the solution is prepared in the appropriate concentration, and then applied in the correct fashion for a sufficient length of time.

3rd degree (severe form); At this stage, there is total incontinence of stool. There are many different causes of fecal incontinence including: • Damage to or loss of sensory receptors. In the past , the widely employed Whitehead operation for intern al hemorrhoids, first proposed in 1882, was often responsible for incontinence. In this procedure, the entire area of the anal columns with the corpus cavernosum recti and overlying muscosa was excised to the dentate line and then the ring-shaped defect was covered by advancing rectal mucosa.

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