Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics: Volume 9, 1989 by Connie W. Bales (auth.), M. Powell Lawton Ph.D. (eds.)

By Connie W. Bales (auth.), M. Powell Lawton Ph.D. (eds.)

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Van Beresteyn, E. C. , Raymakers, J. , & Duursma, S. A. (1987). Nutritional aspects of osteoporosis. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 49, 121-159. Slovik, D. , Adams, J. , Neer, R. , Holick, M. , & Potts, J. T. (1981). Deficient production of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D in elderly osteoporotic patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 305, 372-374. Smith, E. , & Smith P. E. (1981). Physical activity and calcium modalities for bone mineral increase in aged women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 13, 60-64.

For example, zinc supplements decrease calcium absorption when intakes of calcium are low (Spencer & Kramer, 1987). In addition, increased ingestion of sodium chloride has been shown to enhance urinary calcium loss. The practical impact of sodium on bone health has not been ascertained; the calciuretic action of sodium may vary with renal glomerular filtration rate, state of hydration, or parathyroid status. Although there is little hard evidence of sodium risk to bone mineral, a moderately low-sodium diet (no added salt, exclusion of high-sodium foods) may be a safe and beneficial goal for elderly individuals.

The syndrome of diabetes mellitus is currently recognized to consist of two major types: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). 1 Diagnostic Criteria for Diabetes Mellitus in Nonpregnant Adults• Oral Glucose Tolerance Testh Fasting Plasma Glucose I. > 140 mgjdl on 2 or more occasions 2. < 140 mgjdl 3. Elevation of plasma glucose in addition to classic diabetes symptoms, such as polyruia, polydipsia, ketonuria, and rapid weight loss One Hour Not required > 200 mgjdlc Not required Two Hours Not required > 200 mgjdl Not required • Any one of these criteria is considered overt diabetes mellitus.

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