By D. Virgil Alfaro III et al.
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Extra resources for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Some chemokines are considered proinflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection, while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development. From a structural perspective, however, chemokines are frequently divided into four families: CXC, CX3C, CC, and C (138,139). As for AMD, chemokines appear to be crucial in the subretinal microglia/macrophage accumulation observed and may also participate directly in the genesis of several abnormal processes such as retinal degeneration and CNV (108,140,141).
Among the most frequent findings were the presence of drusen, the thickening of BM, and the development of CNV (being thereby suitable for simulating wet forms of AMD as well) (76). However, prior to the 7-month period, retinas from these animals were absolutely indistinguishable from age-matched wildtype animals (76). As with many other models, lesions increased in number and severity with age: At 10 months of age, 86% of mice had drusen, compared to very few drusen in age-matched wild-type mice (76), and at a year of age, RPE vacuolization and degenerative changes were noted.
Photocoagulation induced thrombosis of choroidal vessels followed by reendothelialization 48 hours later and growth of new vessels into the subretinal space by a week (227). As explained above, newly formed vessels are more permeable so that neovascular development can be monitored with fluorescein angiography to assess vessel leakage. As a matter of fact, outcome measures of efficacy include the extent of growth of laser-induced new vessels, the total area of blood vessel leakage, and the percentage of laser lesions resulting in clinically significant vessel leakage, as visualized by fluorescein angiography and in some cases confirmed by histopathology.