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The tissue engineering triad; factors that need to be considered when designing a suitable structure for tissue engineering applications 2. Scaffold requirements Traditionally, scaffolds designed for tissue engineering attempted to meet a small number of common requirements that would allow them to be used safely for the in vitro production of engineered tissue or alternatively for in vivo implantation as regenerative aids. g. e. supporting the healing phase while in tandem ensuring that the scaffold does not act as a barrier to the regenerative process, and (iv) to be bioinert and provoke a minimal inflammatory or immunological response as a result of its implantation or population with cells.
The average fiber deviation and also the orientation degree of collagen fibers can be quantified based on the following equations: D(%) = 100 N DA i ⋅∑ and the OD(%) = 100 − D N i=1 90 Advances in Collagen/Hydroxyapatite Composite Materials 21 where, N is the number of fibers; DAi — correspond to deviation angle of each fiber; D (%) correspond to the average deviation of the fibers toward the applied electric field and OD(%) correspond to the orientation degree. Obviously the orientation is difficult to quantify and only a few methods permit this kind of measurements (and usually these are indirect methods); the orientation will be quantify based on the SEM images.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) and tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) are two of the most commonly used calcium phosphate bioceramics in tissue engineering applications. , 1993) and its osteoconductivity. HA, the mineral that occurs naturally in bone tissue, has also been used extensively as a tissue engineering scaffold material due to its 38 Advances in Composite Materials for Medicine and Nanotechnology osteoinductivity. It is typically used for coating biomedical implants to induce bone regeneration, allowing the implant to integrate with the surrounding tissue.