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Photonic crystals can be manufactured by microfabrication. Optical coherence Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers high-resolution cross-sectional tomographic tomography imaging based on backscattered or back-reflected light. It has many uses, including biomedical applications. In general, its resolution is about twice as good as conventional ultrasound and it generates real-time in situ images at several frames per second. OCT is Page 39 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2007 Advances in Biophotonics Future trends in photonics widely used in optical biopsy and it can show tissue structure at resolutions almost good enough to investigate histopathology without tissue excision.
Single-photon absorptions occur with a much higher probability, so they produce fluorescence throughout the beam, not just at the focus. Multiphoton absorptions have a much lower probability and produce fluorescence at Page 32 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2007 Advances in Biophotonics Photonics in biomedical applications 4 or near the focus. Multiphoton fluorescence can be combined with confocal microscopy (page 39) to build up very sharp images. Applications M ultiphoton Multiphoton microscopy is applicable to many areas that require high-resolution fluorescence imaging.
Limitations SPR techniques have been used to develop many optical devices, but very few have really been successful. This has been due to the limitation of the transmission distance. Solid-state lasers Heterostructure wavelength-tunable lasers are receiving significant interest for controlling electrons in semiconductor bands. The quantum cascade (QC) laser is the first room temperature semiconductor laser to operate in the mid-IR and far-IR regions. Mid-IR wavelengths (~10–6m) are essential for biological and chemical testing.