A Critical Analysis of the Jhanas in Theravada Buddhist by Henepola Gunaratana

By Henepola Gunaratana

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409. 3. A. 1:189. , 3:210. 46 cetasikagelañña ; middha khandhattaya co-existing with consciousness. Though the Dhammasa ga i defines torpor with a number of synonyms suggestive of physical sleep, its commentary takes pains to point out that what is intended as a hindrance is not the physical tiredness which necessitates sleep, but the indolence and mental obscuration which accompany sleepiness in the case of unliberated individuals. The Visuddhimagga follows the lead of the suttas and Abhidhamma in also giving separate definitions of sloth and torpor consistent with those in the other commentaries: Herein, stiffness [sloth] has the characteristic of lack of driving power.

1. The Visuddhimagga says that “abandoning by suppression” occurs whenever “any of the mundane kinds of concentration suppresses opposing states such as the hindrances,”3 as illustrated by the pressing down of water-weed by placing a porous pot on weedfilled water. 4 2. 5 1. ” Pa isambhidamaggapāli [Pāli Text in Burmese script], (Rangoon, Burma: Buddhasāsana Samiti, 1962), p. ). 2. , pp. 26-27. 3. , p. 812. , p. 596. 4. , p. 812. , p. 596. 5. , p. 813. , pp. 596-97. 50 paccanikadhammāna vikkhambhana , ida This type of abandoning, in other words, represents a form of factor-substitution in which the arising of a particular species of insight-knowledge cancels out and vanquishes a corresponding kind of error.

4. , pp. 8, 260. 5. Psy. Ethics. p. 260. “Tattha katama vicikicchānīvara a ? , pp. 233-34. 48 wisdom in leading to the end of suffering. Doubt regarding the past, future, and both applies to past lives, future lives, and both. 1 It is evident from these definitions and descriptions that the species of doubt classed as a hindrance is skeptical indecision with respect to the fundamental tenets of Buddhist doctrine and practice. The doubt to be abandoned is not the freedom of philosophical inquiry, which the Buddha openly encouraged in those who sought to gain personal conviction of truth, but stubborn disbelief and perplexity regarding the principles needed for higher development.

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