A Brief History of Cuba by Rose Ana Berbeo

By Rose Ana Berbeo

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Alarmed by the Cuban situation, the newlyelected administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed B. Sumner Welles as its ambassador in Havana. Its mission was to find a solution to the crisis within the traditional mechanisms of neocolonial domination. However, Welles' mediation was overtaken by events: on August 12, Machado fled the country, overthrown by a general strike. S. ambassador survived for just one month. An uprising of the working classes and soldiers, together with the University Student 44 Directorate and other insurrectional groups, put a revolutionary government in power, led by Ramon Grau San Martin.

A symptomatic event: 30 ban military commanders led by Calixto Garda were excluded from the surrender ceremony and their forces were prohibited from entering the city. Months later, in accordance with the Treaty of Paris, Spain transferred Cuba to the United States without any consideration for the representative institutions of the Cuban people. S. 1899-1902 MILITARY OCCUPATION IN CUBA With the signing of the Treaty of Paris, the former colony's political situation became unclear. Cuba was no longer a colony, but at the same time, a republic was not being established.

Most of the combatants were members of the Authentic Organization (OA), led by Reinold Garda. The action ended in a resounding defeat because the men were expected, which was evident by the outcome: seventeen of the attackers were killed and none wounded, while the army suffered no casualties. The assault on this garrison, the base of the Rural Guard's Fourth Regiment in Matanzas, was an element that prompted the 50 regime's intelligence agencies and organs of repression to act more energetically, especially to dismantle, neutralize and not underestimate groups of conspirators who were affiliated with the Authentics.

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