By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Rod Foroozan MD
Offers a symptom-driven method of the prognosis and remedy of significant neuro-ophthalmic stipulations. With the point of interest at the sufferer, this ebook emphasizes exam and acceptable adjunctive reviews, together with a dialogue of diagnostic imaging modalities, and leads the reader in the course of the occasionally refined manifestations of neuro-ophthalmic disorder to anatomical localization of lesions and definitive prognosis. an summary of the anatomy of visible pathways is followed by means of many illustrations.
Upon final touch of part five, readers might be capable to:
- Describe a symptom-driven method of sufferers with universal neuro-ophthalmic proceedings to be able to formulate a suitable differential diagnosis
- decide on the main applicable exams and imaging, in response to symptomatology, to diagnose and deal with neuro-ophthalmic issues in an economical manner
- determine eye circulate issues and the ocular motor method
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Extra resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 5: Neuro-Ophthalmology
T he second circumferential arteries are from the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA). The AICA arises from the caudal BA ru1d upplies the pontomedullary junction and distal cerebellum. A large proximal branch of the AICA, the internal auditory artery, supplies the CN VIII complex in the subarachnoid space and follows it into the internal auditory canal. Along the course of the BA, small perforators arise directly to supply portions of the pons and midbrain. The median perforators of the BA supply the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the paramedian pontine formation, and the medially located nuclei of CNs III, IV, and VI.
Horton JC, Hoyt WE The representation of the visual field in human striate cortex. A revision of the classic Holmes map. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991;109(6):816-824. 32 • Neuro-Ophthalmology Figure 1-22 Parallel visual processing pathways in the human. The occipitotemporal, or "what," pathway begins in the striate cortex (V1) and projects to the angular gyrus for language processing, to the inferior temporal lobe for object identification, and to the limbic structures. The occipitoparietal, or "where," pathway begins in the striate cortex and projects to the posterior parietal and superior temporal cortex, concerned with visuospatial analysis.
Burst cell input may come in part from the PPRF caudally but also locally within the riMLF. The INC (neural integrator for vertical and torsional gaze) receives signals from the riMLF and from the vestibular nuclei and projects to the motoneurons of the CN III Upward Eye Movements Downward Eye Movements riMLF INC Midbrain CN Ill N CN IV N Pons Medulla Figure 1-27 Anatomical schemes for the synthesis of upward and downward movements (in red). From the vertical semicircular canals, primary afferents on the CN VIII synapse in the CN VIII nucleus (N) and ascend into the medial longitudinal fasciculu s (MLF) and brachium conjunctivum (not show n) to contact the CN IV N, CN Ill N, and interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) .